My daily exploration of the Bible, taking it one chapter at a time. If I do it everyday, it'll take 1189 days.

Tuesday, October 31, 2006

Isaiah 35

But It'll Be Okay!

Then the land will be happy and go into bloom. The scared don't have to worry, because God will come to save you! The lame will jump, the dumb speak, and the desert will be wet! There will be a righteous path for the righteous to come back to Israel.

Key verse:
5. Then will the eyes of the blind be opened
and the ears of the deaf unstopped.

My thoughts:
These signs accompanying the re-establishment of Israel become important in Jesus' claims to Messiahship as they happen with Jesus. Isaiah 61 is more more significant in this, but this passage seems quite connected to Matthew 11.

Monday, October 30, 2006

Isaiah 34

Gun Pointed at the Head of the Universe

Listen up, world, cos God is pissed off at you. All of you. He's gunna destroy you, and the sky too.

God's sword is covered in blood because of sacrifices. He has a day of vengeance in mind! Edom will be screwed. Wild animals will take over her land, and they will have their partners. It is written. It will happen.

Key verse:
17. He allots their portions;
his hand distributes them by measure.
They will possess it forever
and dwell there from generation to generation.

My thoughts:
I thought God wasn't into violence? Oh wait. This is the Biblical God...

Sunday, October 29, 2006

Isaiah 33

So, like, some bad stuff will happen, but then, like, some good stuff, ya know?

The betrayer will be betrayed, and the destroyer destroyed.

God, have grace. You're so powerful, and you're a firm foundation.

Everyone's mourning! So God says "It's showtime! Let's burn some peoples!". Hear Him.

Zion's sinners needs to change their pants, because God is so freaken terrifying.

The righteous man will be sweet tho. Mountain sweet. The arrogant will be gone. Zion will be peaceful and healthy and God will be there.

Key verse:
22. For the Lord is our judge,
the Lord is our lawgiver,
the Lord is our king;
it is he who will save us.

My thoughts:
Don't worry... something new and interesting happens in chapter 36. Well... new and interesting if you haven't read Kings...

Saturday, October 28, 2006

Isaiah 32

The coming kingdom

There will be a righteous king. You will be sheltered! You will see and understand! Everyone will get the place they deserve.

You women are so lazy. You think you'll be fine. But remember! Pride comes before a fall. Your cities will be desolate, until the Spirit decides to make them fertile again. There will be righteousness and peace! You'll be blessed!

Key verse:
1. See, a king will reign in righteousness
and rulers will rule with justice.

My thoughts:
I'll concede to Deanosaurus a little bit here. I don't think that this key verse is about Jesus, or even a specific king. Given the second half of the verse, it is more referring to rulers in general, and how they will become righteous, unlike now.

Women! Don't be lazy! Especially around exams! (Men too...)

I've finished exams now! All good! Now I've just gotta get ready for Thailand! W00t!

Friday, October 27, 2006

Isaiah 31

Egypt + God = God

Don't trust Egypt to protect you above God. Egypt ain't God. If God's a lion, then Egypt's a bunch of shepherds. There may be many of them, but a lion isn't afraid!

Return to him! He'll destroy Assyria!

Key verse:
3. But the Egyptians are men and not God

My thoughts:
So often we prefer to trust human things rather than trust God. But if we really believe God is real, then we should really trust him. It's called faith. It works.

Thursday, October 26, 2006

Isaiah 30

You don't even want it! Gosh!

Sucks for those who do their own plans with their own alliances. Those alliances will fail! Ha! Egypt won't help you!

They suck. They don't even want to hear God's word. So their sin will fall on them like a bridge about to collapse. You were supposed to repent, but you didn't want to. You ran away. And so you will continue to run from your enemies. God wants to show grace!

When you call on God, he will be quick to pick you up again. Just do it! You'll be prosperous!

God's name is coming strongly like the weather. There will be much rejoicing, and Assyria will be screwed! The furnace is ready for their king.

Key verse:
18. Yet the Lord longs to be gracious to you;
he rises to show you compassion.
For the Lord is a God of justice.
Blessed are all who wait for him!

My thoughts:
Sounds like modern day New Zealand. It's not that people don't hear God, it's that they don't even want to! Stupid people.

Wednesday, October 25, 2006

Isaiah 29

Sucks to be Ariel

Ariel will be destroyed quickly and humbled. God will rise up, and all Ariel's enemies will attack her at once. God has confounded you!

But this vision is indecipherable to you.

You praise God with your mouth, but that's all. Your worship is simply man-made. So God will show wonders once again. Don't underestimate God. He has as much control over you as a potter over his clay.

Soon you will understand this vision, and come back to God. When Israel sees the works of God, then things will be sweet.

Key verses:
13. These people come near to me with their mouth
and honor me with their lips,
but their hearts are far from me.
Their worship of me
is made up only of rules taught by men.
16. Can the pot say of the potter,
"He knows nothing"?

My thoughts:
It appears that Jerusalem and Ariel is pretty much one in the same. I've never heard Jerusalem called Ariel before. I wonder where it comes from?

It is clearly a prophecy of Ariel Sharon, and his untimely coma.

Tuesday, October 24, 2006

Isaiah 28

Sucks to be Ephraim

Sucks for Ephraim and all its flowers. They will be trampled. God's glory will replace those flowers for the remnant. Then there will be justice.

But now the priests and prophets are drunker than Dunedin students. They teach stupid little things. So God will speak with foreigners. God will let his word be stupid little things, so they they fail.

You think you've allied yourself with death, but God just wants your trust, justice, and righteousness. Then you won't be allied with death.

At Mount Perazim, God will fulfil his foreign plan. Don't mock, or it'll get worse.

But remember - you don't thresh grain forever. Neither will God always thresh you.

Key verse:
16. See, I lay a stone in Zion,
a tested stone,
a precious cornerstone for a sure foundation;
the one who trusts will never be dismayed.

My thoughts:
We always have a choice. Here Ephraim chose against God, and God wasn't then lost as to what he should do having been rejected. He just said "Fine, I'll use the foreigners". God will be fine whether you and the world chooses him or not. We always have a choice.

Monday, October 23, 2006

Isaiah 27

Israel wins in the end

Then God will punish all with the sword, including the leviathan. Then God will sing: "I have a vineyard (Israel) to watch over, but no thorns to fight."

Israel will blossom. She has been spared the punishment of the rest of the world. Israel's guilt will be atoned for by destroying all the foreign altars and worship poles. A trumpet will be blown, and you will all be called back home.

Key verse:
3. I, the Lord, watch over it;
I water it continually.
I guard it day and night
so that no one may harm it.

My thoughts:
Hmm... there seems to be a tension between Israel being severely punished, but also being the saviour of the world.

Sunday, October 22, 2006

Isaiah 26

Judah's song

Then Judah will sing:
Our city is awesome and strong! Only open the gates to the righteous. There'll be peace; just trust God! He humbles the proud, and give the righteous an easy path.

We wait on your morning and evening. The unrighteous don't even see you.

You've made our nation bigger, to your own glory. We used to come to you desperate, but now you dead will rise! We should go hide ourselves for a while, whilst God comes to judge.

Key verse:
19. But your dead will live;
their bodies will rise.
You who dwell in the dust,
wake up and shout for joy.

My thoughts:
Hmm... this concept of the dead rising seems much earlier than Daniel 12! Resurrection clearly isn't a systematic part of Jewish faith, but I think there is evidence to suggest that it does have a long history beside Jewish religion.

Saturday, October 21, 2006

Isaiah 25

God's banquet

Praise God! He can destroy cities, so warriors will worship him. You look after the poor and silence the loud foreigners.

On this mountain God has a banquet for us all, and he will take away the shrouds which hide. He will destroy death. Then we will know that he is our God. He will tramp over Moab.

Key verses:
7-8. On this mountain he will destroy
the shroud that enfolds all peoples,
the sheet that covers all nations; he will swallow up death forever.

My thoughts:
If 'this mountain' is Zion, then this is clearly a prophecy about Jesus, and how in him God swallow death and wiped every tear and brought together all peoples to take away the shroud.

It's nice to have a chapter that isn't just judgement on a certain people group for once!

Friday, October 20, 2006

Isaiah 24

Sucks to be Earth!

God is going to destroy the earth. The fate of all people, regardless of status, will be the same. The earth is dried up, and is defiled by our sin. The earth is, therefore, cursed. There's no joy or singing left. Just silent ruined cities.

People across the world sing glory to God, but I am cursed.

But no-one will escape this punishment. Eartho Delenda Est. Heavenly ruler and earthly kings alike will be taken prisoner. The sun and moon will shy away, and God will live in glory in Jerusalem.

Key verse:
2. it will be the same
for priest as for people,
for master as for servant,
for mistress as for maid,
for seller as for buyer,
for borrower as for lender,
for debtor as for creditor.

My thoughts:
In nuclear war, all will be cremated equal. This is an interesting eschatological issue - the destruction of the earth. It is a prophecy which is, of course, continued in the Christian faith. In Christ and his resurrection, we know that God wishes his creation to live, and not remain cursed. There seems to be a bit of tension between this wish of God, and also his desire to destroy everything and start again. It appears, however, that for God's creation to live in fullness, there must be judgement and transforming recreation of the Earth.

Thursday, October 19, 2006

Isaiah 23

Sucks to be Tyre!

Holy crap!! Tyre's destroyed!

She was the marketplace of the Mediterranian, but now the islands are silent.

Word will reach Egypt and they'll be gutted. But God planned to humble the proud. Tarshish has no harbour! God doesn't want any more reveling!

After seventy years Tyre will be like the whore in this song: "Haha! Stupid whore. No-one remembers you! Maybe if you sing, then people will remember you!". After that time, God will let Tyre whore herself to the mediterranian again, but God's people will get the spoils.

Key verse:
9. The Lord Almighty planned it,
to bring low the pride of all glory
and to humble all who are renowned on the earth.

My thoughts:
Hmm... where is Tarshish? I've heard it speculated that was over in Spain. They obviously have boats and travel the Mediterranian. But this chapter seems to imply that they are more closely connected with Tyre, north of Israel.

Wednesday, October 18, 2006

Isaiah 22

Sucks to be Jerusalem

Why are you worried, Jerusalem? No-one's been killed in battle! Your leader are gone without a fight.

God's has a day of destruction coming. Judah without defence and Jerusalem surrounded by chariots.

You'll try to counteract the destruction, but you won't realise that this is God's will. But you will party, because you know that you will die the next day.

Your sin will not be atoned for. God is rebuking the palace's steward for building his own tomb. God will dispose of him. Eliakim will take his place.

Key verse:
13. "Let us eat and drink," you say,
"for tomorrow we die!"

My thoughts:
The obscurity of these passages is really beginning to bug me!

Is the people's revelry in light of their impending deaths a good thing, or is it the sin that will not be atoned? I dunno.

I've got Firefox 2.0 at home now. It has a built in spellchecker, which is nice, and will be useful for this blog!

Tuesday, October 17, 2006

Isaiah 21

There Shall In That Time Be Rumors Of Things Going Astray, Erm, And There Shall Be A Great Confusion As To Where Things Really Are, And Nobody Will Really Know Where Lieth Those Little Things With The Sort Of Raffia-Work Base, That Has An Attachment. At That Time, A Friend Shall Lose His Friend's Hammer, And The Young Shall Not Know Where Lieth The Things Possessed By Their Fathers That Their Fathers Put There Only Just The Night Before, About Eight O'Clock.

An invader is coming from the desert, and it hurts me. It stresses me out. When the lookout sees horsemen, then they will come and say that Babylon has fallen.

Concerning Edom; Morning may be coming, but then night after that.

The Arabs are cowards and should nourish the fugitives. The Kedarites will be decimated within the year.

Key verse:
9. Babylon has fallen, has fallen!
All the images of its gods
lie shattered on the ground!

My thoughts:
Sometimes prophecies just seems to be a random collection of words.

Monday, October 16, 2006

Isaiah 20

International Nude Years

The top Assyrian commander took over Ashdod, and God told Isaiah to walk around naked for three years. In the same way, the Egyptians and Cushites will be carried away naked by the Assyrians.

Key verses:
3-4. Just as my servant Isaiah has gone stripped and barefoot for three years, as a sign and portent against Egypt and Cush, so the king of Assyria will lead away stripped and barefoot the Egyptian captives and Cushite exiles

My thoughts:
I wish God told me to get naked. It's so warm outside today...

Sunday, October 15, 2006

Isaiah 19

Sucks to be Egypt

God is coming to Egypt, and that makes them tremble. He'll make them fight each other. They'll be oppressed failures. The rivers will dry up, and all the workers won't get anything. Their officials are morons. Egypt will be like a drunkard.

They will fear Judah, and they will speak Canaan's language and worship God. They'll be in distress and God will save them, and then they'll worship him. Assyria, Judah and Egypt will join together to worship God. Three nations as a blessing.

Key verse:
25. The Lord Almighty will bless them, saying, "Blessed be Egypt my people, Assyria my handiwork, and Israel my inheritance."

My thoughts:
Wow. This is a seemingly unorthodox prophecy. It prophesies the extension of God's chosen people to Egypt and Assyria. As far as I know, this never really happened, unless you consider the time when Christianity dominated that area.

Saturday, October 14, 2006

Isaiah 18

Sucks to be Cush

Poor Cush by the rivers. They have such nice boats, but soon a banner will be lifted that no-one can ignore. Then God will be in control, and Cush will pay tribune to Israel.

Key verse:
3. when a banner is raised on the mountains,
you will see it,
and when a trumpet sounds,
you will hear it.

My thoughts:
It's interesting that Cush seems to be judged, when there is no charge laid against them. There is no indication here that they have sinned.

Friday, October 13, 2006

Isaiah 17

Sucks to be Damascus

Damascus will be destroyed, like Israel's glory. It'll be like harvest time - God will come and take them away. Like, also like harvest, there will be some, which God will miss and leave behind. Then people will turn to God.

You have forgotten God, so you will get no harvest. People will roar like the ocean, but God will silence them.

Key verse:
10. You have forgotten God your Savior;
you have not remembered the Rock, your fortress.

My thoughts:
This prophecy is obviously accurate as there is no longer a city called Damascus.

Thursday, October 12, 2006

Isaiah 16

Moab still 5u><><0rz!

Moab will pay tribute. They are displaced.

But oppression will end. A king will sit on David's throne (zOMG! Jesus!@!!), and he will be just.

Moab cries because of her pride. I cry for her. She tries so hard.

All this within three years.

Key verse:
5. In love a throne will be established

My thoughts:
Poor Moab. Notice how the throne is established in love. Not power or success or anything. This must clearly refer to Jesus.

Wednesday, October 11, 2006

Isaiah 15

Sucks to be Moab

Moab's cities are screwed. They're crying at their shrines. They mourn loudly. I feel sorry for them. Their wealth is gone, and blood fills their waters.

Key verse:
5. My heart cries out over Moab;
her fugitives flee as far as Zoar

My thoughts:
Sucks to be Moab.

This is one of many "Woe to" prophecies in Isaiah. There are many in other prophetical books too. I find them somewhat uninteresting, to be honest.

This prophecy is, of course, fulfilled in Jesus, when he spiritually destroys the false worship of Moab in the symbolic action of casting out the demons of Legion in the area of Moab in the gospels.

Tuesday, October 10, 2006

Isaiah 14

The fallen star

God's grace will allow Israel to return and have control over their land. Babylon will then be mocked. God has broken the stick which used to beat the world! Death has greeted the oppressors.

You wanted to be in God's seat, but you have now fallen. No-one now can believe that you used to be so powerful. You won't have a peaceful tomb like other kings.

Assyria will be destroyed. It has been planned.

The Jewish King is dead, but Philistia shouldn't be happy, because they will be destroyed anyway.

Key verse:
12. How you have fallen from heaven,
O morning star, son of the dawn!
24. Surely, as I have planned, so it will be,
and as I have purposed, so it will stand.

My thoughts:
I like the certainity this passage has about God's plan. It is sure that it will happen!

The morning star passage has often been interpreted to refer to Satan and him fall from heaven for trying to usurp God. This is not, of course, the most obvious interpretation. It seems to refer firstly to the King of Babylon, who made the common imperial claims to some sort of deity, who will then be humbled. This interpretation should come before any other interpretations. This does not mean, however, that a Satanic interpretation is invalid, but that it is not the original reading. The concept of the "King of Babylon" probably came to have quite Satanic overtones anyway, given the imagery attributed to Babylon in later Judaism and Christianity.

Monday, October 09, 2006

Isaiah 13

Babylon's destruction

Listen to God's brewing army; hear them roar. They have been summoned from far and wide.

The day is coming and everyone will fear it. The sky will be black, and humanity will be an endangered species. Everyone will run home. The slow will be kills, along with the babies. Babylon will be overthrown. Animals will take it over, and it will be uninhabited by people.

Key verse:
9. See, the day of the Lord is coming
—a cruel day, with wrath and fierce anger—
to make the land desolate
and destroy the sinners within it.

My thoughts:
I think it's important to notice that no matter how permanent some things seem, even massive kingdoms and superpowers, everything eventually comes to an end. For example, nobody really expected the rapid breakdown of the Soviet Union and Apartheid. There was no real hope. The Jews would have been in a similar situation reading this prophecy, but this prophecy gave hope.

Sunday, October 08, 2006

Isaiah 12

Praise God whilst he's happy! Quick!

Then you'll be all like, "I'll praise you, cos you ain't angry no more! He's my salvation. Let's sing to him and thank him!"

Key verse:
3. With joy you will draw water
from the wells of salvation.

My thoughts:
I think it's cool that the Bible doesn't just explain that God will be just, but that we'll actually view him to just. Sometimes we don't always see God's justice as particularly just, but it appears that one day we'll all understand that God was right all along!

Saturday, October 07, 2006

Isaiah 11

Israel restored

Someone will come from Jesse's line, and the Spirit will be on him. He will trust God, not his senses, and will judge rightly. All animals will be at peace. His people will come to him; God will draw them. Israel will come and not be bitter amongst itself, and the nations around will be subject to them.

Key verse:
1. A shoot will come up from the stump of Jesse;
from his roots a Branch will bear fruit.

My thoughts:
One could say that this prophecy has only really begun to be fulfilled when the new Israeli state began in the 1940s.

This prophecy, which I believe to be fulfilled in Jesus, is, however, still not an entirely surprising prophecy. The concept of a leader in the line of David coming to bring Israel back in power was a 'common' Messianic expectation around Jesus' time, and Jesus' fulfilment of such prophecy was radical rather than expected.

Friday, October 06, 2006

Isaiah 10

A sinful tool

Disaster will come to those who oppress people and pervert justice.

Assyria is God's tool, but she is still arrogant, and wants to destroy Jerusalem. God will destroy Assyria when he's finished with her. A tool doesn't control its user! God will burn them like fire!

Then later, the remnant of Israel will trust God and return. Just a remnant.

God's anger won't last forever, and Assyria will be punished.

They will go to Nob, but not enter Judah. God will cut them down like a lumberjack.

Key verse:
22. Though your people, O Israel, be like the sand by the sea,
only a remnant will return.
Destruction has been decreed,
overwhelming and righteous.

My thoughts:
Poor Israel.

Notice how it is God's will for Assyria to destroy Israel, yet Assyria is still culpable for their sins. God's will seems to be separate from his responsibility from a blame point of view. This would not seem very logical to us!

It reminds me of the lovely discussions we had in class last semester regarding Saul and whether it was Saul's fault or God's. Perhaps it was God's will for Saul to fail, but Saul's fault.

Thursday, October 05, 2006

Isaiah 9

A light in the darkness

But the gloom will leave, and Galilee will be honoured. There is a new light - an enlarged nation - and the bondage is broken, and war is over. Because there is a child born, who will be our God and ruler. He will rule forever.

Israel is arrogant, and thinks it can rebuild more lavishly. God hasn't finished with his anger though! Israel hasn't sought God, so God is chopping Israel down from top to bottom.

Wickedness is like an out-of-control bushfire. God's hand is still against them.

Key verse:
6. For to us a child is born,
to us a son is given,
and the government will be on his shoulders.
And he will be called
Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God,
Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace.

My thoughts:
Isaiah is sometimes called 'the fifth Gospel' and its not hard to see why! Take some of these passages, and add some of the suffering servant around Isaiah 53, and you have the basics of the Gospel!

Galilee was such an insignificant region, that it is amazing that it was mentioned here at all. But it is, and the honour given to Galilee is connected with a child born, who will be called 'Mighty God' and 'Prince of Peace'. These clearly aren't simpy theophoric proper names, but appear to be attributes assigned to the child.

The Jehovah's Witnesses make a big deal about how Jesus is called 'Mighty God' here, but only Yahweh (Jehovah lol) is called 'Almighty God'. Despite common belief they actually view Jesus as divine, but only as 'a god', not God himself. Weird huh? It's actually funny that when you demote Jesus belong full divinity, but still hold him above anything else (which the Bible clearly does), you actually end up with a more polytheistic point of view, because you now have a demi-god! Normally people wishing to demote Jesus are trying to maintain monotheism, but they are, in fact, doing the opposite!

Wednesday, October 04, 2006

Isaiah 8


A prophetess had a baby, and God told me to call him Quick-To-The-Plunder-Swift-To-The-Spoil, or Qttpstts for short. God told me that before Qttpstts could speak, Aram and Israel would be destroyed by Assyria. God can thwart all strategic plans.

God said, "Don't live in fear of conspiracy. Fear God. He will be both a resting place and a stumbling block."

I'll always look to God, and so should you.

Key verse:
10. Devise your strategy, but it will be thwarted;
propose your plan, but it will not stand,
for God is with us.

My thoughts:
I'm not sure whether this birth of Qttpstts equates with the birth of Immanuel prophesied in the previous chapter, but there is definitely some connection. The prophecy just after the prophetess bears the child makes a couple of clear references to Immanuel.

Verse 14 is also quoted in the New Testament with regard to Jesus.

Tuesday, October 03, 2006

Isaiah 7


Ahaz was king of Judah, and Israel and Aram went to war against Judah. God sent Isaiah to tell Ahaz not to worry, because Israel and Aram's plans will not happen. They are rotting stumps.

God told Ahaz to ask for a sign, but he refused. So Isaiah said,

"You'll get a sign anyway! A virgin will have a baby, who will be God among us. By the time he grows up, Assyria will destroy Aram and Israel. A plague of flies will come; your beards will be shorn; your land will be desolate."

Key verse:
14. The virgin will be with child and will give birth to a son, and will call him Immanuel.

My thoughts:
Immanuel literally just means 'God with us'. 'Im' means 'with'; 'Immanu' means 'with us'; and 'El' means 'God', from 'Elohim'.

This passage is obviously re-interpretated in light of Jesus, and indeed it makes a powerful prophetic statement of Jesus. It is, also, however, a prophecy about a near future to Ahaz, where Assyria will take over Israel and Aram.

Think to yourself about some potential upcoming event that you fear. If God said,
"It will not take place,
it will not happen," (v7)
would you really trust him? We need to trust God more with our expectations and our fears.

Monday, October 02, 2006

Isaiah 6

My God is so big, so strong and so mighty, there's nothing my God cannot do!

I, Isaiah, saw God on his throne, surrounded by his angels. His train was massive. I suddenly felt very inadequate, but an angel burnt my sins away.

God was looking for someone to send to the world, so I offered my services. God told me to go blind Israel until they were destroyed. Only a tenth will be left.

Key verse:
1. I saw the Lord seated on a throne, high and exalted, and the train of his robe filled the temple.

8. Here am I. Send me!

My thoughts:
This isolated chapter is quite apocolyptic, and I find it interesting that this apocolyptic chapters sits within a book that is not apocolyptic. I tend towards the belief that apocolyptic literature is derived from the similarity of people's experience of the heavenlies, and not just a written genre. The fact that this chapter is consistent with apocolyptic literature and with the rest of the book indicates to me that this is a genuine experience rather than the author trying to fit a genre.

Also of note in this chapter is God's majesty and sheer massiveness, and also Isaiah's willingness to be sent. Go and do likewise!

Sunday, October 01, 2006

Isaiah 5

The bad vineyard

My thoughts:
Let me sing about a man and his vineyard. He looked after it carefully, and spent a lot on it, but it still produce crap fruit. The man then declared his intention to destroy the vineyard.

But this vineyard isn't just a vineyard. It's you Israel. It's you.

God hates people who build up mansions. They'll be destroyed. The fields will have little produce. Exile will come because of hedonism! Death will come to you all! Humankind will be humbled, but God will be glorified.

Don't try to rush God's plans! Don't misplace evil for good! Or else God will destroy.

God had put a homing beacon on Israel, so that all the missles of the other countries don't miss! Your land will be darkened.

Key verse:
4. What more could have been done for my vineyard
than I have done for it?
When I looked for good grapes,
why did it yield only bad?

My thoughts:
The vineyard is a common image for Israel, usually to express the care God has taken over Israel, but the lack of fruit Israel has produced. A similar image is used in Matt 21:33-41.